Inversions are elements of a roller coaster that turn the train upside-down. They are most commonly found on steel roller coasters, however, Outlaw Run and Hades 360, wooden coasters, feature inversions.
Types of Inversions
Barrel RollA Barrel Roll (also known as a "Heartline Roll") is an element in which the track twists 360° around the train, leaving the train twisting in a straight line around the line of riders' center of balance (at about heart level, hence the name).
A Batwing is a double inversion which flips over a 90° half-corkscrew and a half-loop followed by the same maneuver in reverse. Arrow Dynamics calls this element a boomerang.
A Bowtie is a double inversion similar to the Batwing, but the 2nd half-corkscrew is flipped, making the vehicle exit the inversion the same way it entered. It has only appeared (so far) on Dragon Mountain at Marineland.
A Cobra Roll is a double inversion consisting of a half-loop, followed by two mirrored half-corkscrews, and finishing with another half-loop. Arrow Dynamics calls this element a batwing. This is similar to a Banana Roll, but more drawn out.
CorkscrewA Corkscrew is an inversion that resembles a vertical loop that has been stretched so that the entrance and exit points are a distance away from each other. It is basically a combination of a loop and a barrel roll. The riders are inverted at a point angled 90° horizontally from the incoming track. Often Corkscrews are found in pairs. You also occasionally see triple corkscrews.
CutbackA Cutback is an inversion similar to a Corkscrew, except, the second half is mirrored, so that the train exits the inversion in the opposite direction from which it entered. The now defunct Drachen Fire featured a cutback, as well as many Gerstlauer Euro-Fighters. It also is similar to an Banked Turn, but inverting.
Dive LoopA Dive Loop is an inversion that starts like a normal hill, then when it reaches its maximum steepness, does a corkscrew-like twist (which horizontally can range from straight to a curve over 135º) into a downwards half loop. When traveled in reverse it is usually called an Immelman.
Inclined LoopAn Inclined Loop (or a Tilted Vertical Loop) is a Vertical Loop that has been "tilted" at an angle. It is not entered vertically, like a standard loop, or horizontally like a helix. Instead, it is usually entered at an angle between 45° and 80°. Commonly found on B&M Stand Up coasters and the obscure Typhoon model by Italian manufacturer Top Fun.
Interlocking CorkscrewsInterlocking Corkscrews are parallel (or near parallel) Corkscrews that cross over each other in opposite directions.
Interlocking LoopsInterlocking Loops are perpendicular (or near perpendicular) Vertical Loops that cross over each other, making a similar shape to that of a chain. There is only one currently operating roller coaster to feature this; Loch Ness Monster at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, though a similar coaster, Orient Express once operated at Worlds of Fun. Six Flags Great Adventure also once had twin Arrow Shuttles which interlocked with each other's loop.
A Norwegian Loop is a Dive Loop and an Immelmann traveled in succession. This inversion has appeared on three roller coasters; Fahrenheit at Hersheypark, Speed Monster at Tusenfryd, and Helix at Liseberg.
A Sea Serpent (known as a Roll Over on Vekoma coasters) is an inversion pair that is very similar to a Cobra Roll, only the Corkscrew halves have a constant twist and curve in in the same direction (rather than mirroring the second half).
A Butterfly is a variation of a Sea Serpent with very tight corkscrew halves (which appear to be "stretched Loop halves"). This inversion has only appeared on two Vekoma Custom MK-1200s: Blue Hawk and Goudurix
SidewinderA Sidewinder is half of a Vertical Loop combined with half of a Corkscrew. It is similar to an Immelman, though it exits at an angle closer to 90 degrees, and often at a higher elevation than it entered. When travelled in reverse it is simply a "Reverse Sidewinder"
Arguably the most well known roller coaster inversion is a vertical loop. The loop is a continuously upward-sloping section of track that eventually results in a complete 360° circle. At the top-most piece of the loop, riders are completely upside-down. The continuously upward slope often increases relatively as the altitude increases to average the G-Forces (this is often called a "Teardrop Loop").
Zero-G RollA Zero-G Roll (sometimes called a "Spiraling Camelback) is an inversion that is similar to a barrel roll but starts and ends vertically inclined like a standard hill. The inversion resembles a hill with a barrel roll on top.
Similar to a Zero-G Roll, a Zero-G Stall levels out upside down at its highest point, twisting at the ends before leveling off at or near ground level. This inversion resembles an Airtime Hill flipped upside-down. One example of this is Goliath (Six Flags Great America).
Often times the entrance and exit are twisted in opposite directions. This means that instead of taking a full 360° rotation, it flips riders from 0 to 180°, suspending them completely upside down, and then back to 0°. This element is considered an RMC signature, though other companies have begun incorporating it into their newer models. These include the dueling Premier Rides coaster West Coast Racers at Six Flags Magic Mountain, as well as the upcoming Intamin Launch coaster at France's Parc Astérix.
Top Gun Stall
A top gun stall is an element only found on Dueling Roller Coasters. It is a Zero-G Stall over the top of the other train. The name is from a scene in the movie Top Gun, in which a plane is flying upside-down over another. This element has only appeared so far on Twisted Colossus at Six Flags Magic Mountain.
270° Double Inverting Corner Stall
A 270° Double Inverting Corner Stall is an element only found on Untamed.
Untamed is a steel hybrid coaster located at Walibi Holland in the Netherlands. the element first flips the train 270° and hold it for 2 seconds before twisting 270° back to normal.
|Roller Coaster Descriptions|
|Basic Elements||Brake Run • Lift Hill • Launch Track • Station|
|Advanced Elements||Bunny Hill • Headchopper • Inversions • Pre-Drop • Tunnel|
|Lift/Launch||Lift Hill (Cable Lift • Lift Chain • Elevator Lift • Ferris Wheel Lift • Thrill Lift • Tilt Section)|
|Technology||On-ride camera • On-ride soundtrack • Train • car • Track • Transfer Track • Underfriction • Wheel|
|Other||POV • Queue Line • Rollback • Theming|